About the Data

The Children’s Health and Education Mapping Tool includes a number of indicators related to the social determinants of health including high school education, access to free and reduced lunch and food insecurity, and poverty status, as well as measures of health access. The indicators included in the tool are defined as follows:

Child Health, Education, and Socioeconomic Indicators

Health Insurance and Coverage Indicators
  • Under 18: Percent on Medicaid or CHIP: Number of children under age 18 living in families with means-tested insurance coverage divided by the number of U.S. children under age 18. National percentage is 36 percent (Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 2009-2013).
  • Under 18: Percent Uninsured: Number of U.S. children under age 18 that are uninsured divided by the number of U.S. children under age 19. Nationwide, 8 percent of U.S. children under 18 are uninsured (Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 2009-2013).
Health Indicators
  • Teen Birth Rate: Rate per 1,000 females ages 15-19 years as derived by dividing the number of births to females ages 15-19 by the number of females in the U.S. population ages 15-19. The national rate is 37 births per 1,000 women ages 15-19 (Source: RWJF, County Health Rankings and Roadmaps 2015 based on National Center for Health Statistics Natality Files, 2006-2012).
  • Percent Obese: Adult Population: Body mass index (BMI) is calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared for adults over 18. Persons with a BMI of 30.0 – 99.8 kg/m2  are considered obese. Nationally, an estimated 33 percent of the adult population is considered obese (Source: CDC Health Indicators Warehouse 2012).
  • Percent Food Insecure: Total Population: Food insecurity is defined by the USDA as a socioeconomic condition of limited or uncertain access to enough food to support a healthy life. The national average is 15 percent (Source: RWJF, County Health Rankings and Roadmaps 2015 based on 2012 USDA Food Environment Atlas).
  • Chlamydia Rate: Rate of chlamydia per 100,000 population ages. National average is 350 per 100,000 individuals (Source: RWJF, County Health Rankings and Roadmaps 2015 based on CDC Atlas 2012).
Education Indicators
  • Percent of Adults with No High School Diploma: Number of U.S. adults over age 25 without a high school diploma divided by the total number of U.S. adults over age 25. Nationally, 14 percent of U.S. adults do not have a high school diploma (Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 2009-2013).
Demographic and Socioeconomic Status Indicators
  • Percent Free Lunch: Percent of total students eligible to participate in the National School Lunch Program under the Free Lunch Act as derived by dividing the number of students who are eligible for free and reduced school lunch by the total school enrollment. Nationally, 43 percent of U.S. children are eligible for this program (Source: CDC Health Indicators Warehouse, 2007/08).
  • Percent Kids in Poverty: Number of U.S. children under age 18 divided by the number of U.S. children under age 18 living under the Federal Poverty Line. Nationally, 22 percent of U.S. children are living in poverty (Source: U.S. Census Bureau 2009-2013).
  • Percent Kids in Single-Parent Households: Number of U.S. children under age 18 living in single-parent households divided by the total number of U.S. children under age 18. Nationally, 21 percent of U.S. children live in single-parent households (Source: RWJF, County Health Rankings and Roadmaps 2015 based on U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 2009-2013).
  • Percent of Households with Severe Housing Problems: Number of households with at least one of four severe housing problems (incomplete kitchen facilities, incomplete plumbing facilities, overcrowding, and high housing costs) divided by the total number of U.S. households. Overcrowding is defined by the Comprehensive Housing Affordability Strategy as more than one person per room and high housing cost is defined as a cost burden greater than 30 percent. Nationally, 19 percent of U.S. households have severe housing problems (Source: RWJF, County Health Rankings and Roadmaps 2015 based on 2007-2011 Comprehensive Housing Affordability Strategy (CHAS) data).
  • Violent Crime Rate: Number of reported violent crime offenses, including murder and non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault involving force or threat of force, per 100,000 population. The national average is 406 per 100,000 (Source: RWJF, County Health Rankings and Roadmaps 2015 based on 2010-2012 FBI Uniform Crime Reporting).

SBHCs and School Characteristics

Characteristics of Public Schools
  • Title I Eligibility: Title I funding provides financial assistance through state educational agencies (SEAs) to local educational agencies (LEAs) and public schools with high numbers or percentages of poor children to help ensure that all children meet challenging state academic content and student academic achievement standards (Source: National Center for Education Statistics, 2012-2013).
  • Lowest Grade Level Offered: Lowest grade served by school (Source: National Center for Education Statistics, 2012-2013).
  • Highest Grade Level Offered: Highest grade served by school (Source: National Center for Education Statistics, 2012-2013).
  • Total School Enrollment: The total number of students enrolled in the school (Source: National Center for Education Statistics, 2012-2013).
  • Free and Reduced Lunch Eligibility: Percent of students eligible for school lunch program (free lunch and reduced lunch) (Source: National Center for Education Statistics, 2012-2013).
Characteristics of School-Based Health Centers
  • Locations: Circles indicate where SBHCs are located. Circles are green for SBHCs where representatives have completed the Census of School-Based Health Centers, and red for SBHCs that did not have completed surveys (Source: 2013-2014 Census of SBHCs) .
  • SBHC Sponsor Organization: SBHCs are sponsored by local health departments, Federally Qualified Health Centers, school systems, hospital/medical centers, and other organizations including universities, tribal governments, mental health agencies, and private nonprofits (Source: 2013-2014 Census of SBHCs).
  • SBHC Staffing Model: SBHCs have one of three staffing models:
    1. Primary Care Only: This model is typically staffed by a primary care provider (nurse practitioner, physician assistant, or nurse midwife) with no mental health provider on staff, though many have an oral health provider and/or a health educator or other types of clinical support on staff.
    2. Primary Care and Mental Health: This model is staffed by a primary care provider in partnership with a mental health professional, such as a licensed clinical social worker, psychologist, or substance abuse counselor.
    3. Primary Care and Mental Health Plus: This model is the most comprehensive, with primary care and mental health staff joined by other provider types to complement the health care team, such as a health educator, oral health provider, social service case manager, and/or a nutritionist (Source: 2013-2014 Census of SBHCs).
  • Hours of Operation: The hours that SBHCs are open vary. Thirty-one hours per week or more is considered full-time because the average school day is six hours long (Source: 2013-2014 Census of SBHCs).
  • Populations Served: SBHCs generally serve only the students in the school, but many also provide health care to diverse populations in the community. SBHCs described as serving students and community members provide access to at least one population in addition to the students in the school, such as the families of students in the school, students from other schools, out-of-school youth, faculty, or members of the community (Source: 2013-2014 Census of SBHCs).
  • SBHC Serves Adolescents: SBHC serves population including at least one grade of adolescents, defined by the School-Based Health Alliance as grade six or over. (Source: 2013-2014 Census of SBHCs).
  • Grade Levels Served: SBHC serves grade ranges including elementary school (prekindergarten or kindergarten to five or six), middle school (six or seven to eight or nine), high school (nine or 10 to 12), all grades (prekindergarten or kindergarten through 12), and other ranges (Source: 2013-2014 Census of SBHCs).

Basemaps and Optional Layers: Health Care Facilities and Shortage Areas

Health Care Facilities
  • Hospitals: Locations of all U.S. hospitals (Data Source: HRSA Data Warehouse).
  • Health Center Programs (Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs), Look-Alikes and other federally-funded health centers): Locations of all Federally Qualified Health Centers and look-alikes nationwide, as well as other HRSA-grantee health centers (Data Source: HRSA Data Warehouse).
  • Rural Health Clinics: Location of all rural health clinics. RHCs must be located within non-urban rural areas that have health care shortage designations (Data Source: HRSA Data Warehouse).
  • SAMHSA Substance Abuse Treatment Centers: Location of behavioral health services treatment centers based on facility annual responses to SAMHSA surveys (Data Source: SAMHSA, 2015).
Health Policy
  • Counties with or without SBHCs: Designates counties with or without an SBHC(s)(Data Source: 2013-2014 Census of SBHCs).
  • Health Professional Shortage Area (HPSA): Areas designated by HRSA with a shortage of primary care, mental health, and/or dental providers based on set criteria and guidelines (Data Source: HRSA Data Warehouse).
  • Medically Underserved Area (MUAs): MUAs, as defined by HRSA, may be a whole county or a group of contiguous counties, a group of county or civil divisions or a group of urban census tracts in which residents have a shortage of personal health services (Data Source: HRSA Data Warehouse).
  • State Program Office: Some state governments provide funding and/or policies and programmatic support to SBHCs (Data Source: School-Based Health Alliance).
  • 114th US Congress: Boundaries for the 114th US Congress (Data Source: US Census Bureau, 2014).
State SBHC Partners
  • School-Based Health Alliance State Affiliate: State organizations that represent the school-based health care movement at the state and local level (Data Source: School-Based Health Alliance).
  • State Program Office: Some state governments provide funding and/or policies and programmatic support to SBHCs (Data Source: School-Based Health Alliance).
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